Test Bank: Contemporary Nursing, Issues, Trends, & Management 6th edition Cherry 978-0323101097
Chapter 01: The Evolution of Professional Nursing
1.Clara Barton is known for:
|a.||becoming the first African-American public health nurse.|
|b.||establishing the Henry Street Settlement.|
|c.||founding the American Red Cross.|
|d.||publicizing the inadequacies of hospital-based nursing schools.|
Correct: The American Red Cross, founded by Clara Barton in 1882, assisted in efforts to continue public health nursing.
a. Jessie Sleet Scales was the first African-American public health nurse.
b. Lillian Wald, a pioneer in public health nursing, is best known for the development and establishment of the Henry Street Settlement.
d. The Goldmark Report criticized the inadequacies of hospital-based nursing schools and recommended enhanced educational standards.
DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 12
2.Which bill provided for construction of new hospitals?
|a.||Social Security Act|
|d.||U.S. Civil Service Act|
Correct: The purpose of the Hill-Burton Act was to provide funding to construct hospitals and to help states in plan for other health care facilities in accordance with the needs of communities.
a. The main purposes of the 1935 Social Security Act were to provide (1) a national insurance system for older adults; (2) monies to states for maternal and child welfare services; (3) vocational rehabilitation services for the physically and mentally challenged; (4) medical care for crippled children and blind people; (5) a plan to boost public health services; and (6) a federal/state unemployment system.
c. The Sheppard-Towner Act provided federal aid for maternal and child health care.
d. The U.S. Civil Service Act is landmark U.S. legislation establishing the tradition and mechanism of permanent federal employment based on merit rather than on political party affiliation (the spoils system).
DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 14
3.The practice of public health nursing and the Henry Street Settlement are credited to:
Correct: Lillian Wald, a pioneer in public health nursing, is best known for the development and establishment of the Henry Street Settlement.
a. Mary Breckenridge of Kentucky established the Frontier Nursing Service in 1925.
b. Mary Seacole was an African-American nurse who provided care during the Crimean War.
c. Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1882.
DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 11
4.Occupational health nursing features beliefs similar to those of which early nursing pioneer?
Correct: Lillian Wald developed the first nursing service for occupational health.
b. Florence Nightingale is best known for contributions made during the Crimean War, efforts to improve sanitation and public health, use of statistics to provide support for health outcomes, and organization of nurse training.
c. Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross.
d. Mary Seacole was an African-American nurse who served during the Crimean War.
DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 11
5.What historical event first led to the recognition of the contribution of African Americans to nursing?
|a.||Florence Nightingale’s acceptance of African-American nurses into the first nursing school|
|b.||The contributions of African-American nurses at the Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in America|
|c.||Mary Seacole’s efforts to care for soldiers during the Crimean War|
|d.||The work done by wives of wealthy African-American nobles who carried food and medicine from house to house during the Middle Ages|
Correct: Although Nightingale’s school refused Seacole, she was able to make a difference in the Crimean War and later was recognized for her efforts.
a. Florence Nightingale’s efforts during the Crimean War were valuable and recognized, but she would not allow Seacole to join her in her efforts.
b. Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in America, was founded in 1751; Seacole’s efforts in the Crimean War did not occur until 100 years later.
d. The wives of noblemen who carried food and medicine were not uniquely African American.
DIF: Application REF: p. 9
6.World War I contributed to the advancement of health care by:
|a.||increasing the number of private care hospitals and decreasing the role of public health services.|
|b.||employing a large number of civilians to provide care to returning soldiers through the Red Cross.|
|c.||introducing specialists in nursing such as nurse anesthetists.|
|d.||increasing the number of community health nurses.|
Correct: World War I offered nurses a chance to enter into new fields of specialization, as is seen in the example of nurse anesthetists, who became part of surgical teams at the front lines.
a. As advancements in public health were made, the primary site for medical care moved from the home to the hospital.
b. The Red Cross initially provided care to communities in which access was limited and eventually moved to urban areas.
d. Many nurses were needed in the war effort, which caused the growth in community health nursing to halt.
DIF: Application REF: p. 11
7.The primary purpose of the Social Security Act of 1935 was to:
|a.||increase research that focused on minority groups.|
|b.||provide medical care for chemically impaired persons.|
|c.||ensure health care for older adults through a national insurance system.|
|d.||decrease the public’s financial burden by limiting services offered by local health departments.|
Correct: By providing health insurance for older adults, the Social Security Act of 1935 set the precedent for the passage of the Medicare and Medicaid acts that followed in 1965, but the act also provided maternal and child welfare services, rehabilitation for the mentally and physically challenged, medical care for blind individuals and crippled children, and unemployment benefits.
a. Increasing research for minorities was not one of the purposes of the Social Security Act of 1935.
b. The care of persons with substance abuse problems was not one of the first purposes addressed by the Social Security Act.
d. The Social Security Act provided a means by which women and children could receive care, thus increasing the number of public health nurses and services offered.
DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 13
8.A client asks the nurse, “Can you explain Medicare, an amendment to the Social Security Act?” The nurse responds that Medicare:
|a.||led to many hospital closings, along with a decrease in acute care hospital–based nursing care.|
|b.||provided medical insurance to those younger adults or children who were not eligible for private insurance because of catastrophic illnesses such as cancer.|
|c.||provided preventive care for women, infants, and children.|
|d.||ensured that individuals ages 65 and older and those with end-stage renal disease or permanent disabilities had health care insurance.|
Correct: The Medicare program provides hospital insurance, Part A, and medical insurance, Part B, to all people ages 65 and older who are eligible to receive Social Security benefits; people with total, permanent disabilities; and people with end-stage renal disease.
a. Medicare provides insurance for many who previously have not sought health care, resulting in an increase, not a decrease, in hospital care.
b. Medical insurance for young adults and children who were not eligible for private insurance is part of Medicaid.
c. Medicaid was the medical insurance for those families, primarily women and children, with an income at or below the federal poverty level.
DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 14
9.A comparison of nursing in the 1980s to nursing in the 1990s reveals that:
|a.||in the 1990s nursing experienced a significant reduction occurred in preventable diseases caused by unsafe/unhealthy lifestyles.|
|b.||tuberculosis was the primary concern for nursing in the 1980s, whereas the AIDS epidemic emerged and was its focus during the 1990s.|
|c.||a decrease in ambulatory services in the 1980s prompted an increase in public health nurses in the 1990s.|
|d.||the demand for advanced practice nurses increased in the 1980s and the 1990s as a result of the economy and concern about the health of the nation.|
Correct: The numbers of advanced nurse practitioners increased as evidence of their cost-effectiveness as providers of primary and preventive health care became established.
a. In the 1990s many diseases associated with preventable causes led to mortality in the United States.
b. The AIDS epidemic appeared in the 1980s; tuberculosis became more of a concern in the 1990s.
c. The 1980s saw technological improvements that allowed more outpatient procedures, increased use of ambulatory services, and increased demand for community health nurses in the 1990s.
DIF: Application REF: pp. 15-16
10.Which statement accurately describes the historical perspective of nursing practice?
|a.||Nursing has existed to meet the needs of populations, individuals, and aggregates by providing care that is determined by the needs and beliefs of society in different historical contexts.|
|b.||As men began to become interested in nursing, it changed into a respected profession based on scientific fact rather than superstition.|
|c.||Nursing has historically accepted individuals from all social and ethnic backgrounds.|
|d.||The United States has led the way throughout history to advance nursing and health care by providing the first hospital and medical school.|
Correct: Nursing has existed since biblical times to address needs ranging from contagious diseases in early times to health prevention in the present time, with care based on health needs and beliefs of the time.
b. In the beginning, men were recognized as health healers, but women changed nursing from a mystical phenomenon to a respected profession.
c. Nursing has had periods when criminals and prostitutes practiced, and discrimination was evidenced by Nightingale’s refusal of Seacole.
d. The first hospital and the first medical school in North America were founded in Mexico—the Hospital of the Immaculate Conception in Mexico City and the University of Mexico Medical School.
DIF: Application REF: p. 3 | p. 19
11.The use of herbs has become a popular alternative to prescription drugs in today’s health care milieu. During which other historical periods did health practices focus on the use of herbs?
|a.||Prehistoric times and the Middle Ages|
|b.||Civil War period and World War I|
|c.||Renaissance and Reformation periods and the Colonial American period|
|d.||Crimean War and Civil War periods|
Correct: During prehistoric times, tribes used herbs to rid themselves of disease; in the Middle Ages, women used herbs.
b. During the Civil War, health care was similar to that provided in Colonial times, when epidemics were rampant; World War I saw a significant advance in nursing specialties and public health nursing.
c. During the Renaissance and Reformation, major advances were made in pharmacology, chemistry, and medical knowledge, including anatomy, physiology, and surgery. In the Colonial American period advances were made in the identification and treatment of transmissible diseases.
d. During the Crimean War era, nursing care focused on sanitation and environmental improvements; with the Civil War, the nursing focus reverted to communicable diseases.
DIF: Application REF: p. 3 | p. 7
12.A care provider sacrifices an animal and waves an herb-filled sack over a client who is complaining of painful joints and chest pain with exertion. This ritual represents health care during:
|a.||the prehistoric period.|
|b.||early civilization in Egypt.|
|d.||the Middle Ages.|
Correct: During prehistoric times, illness was thought to be caused by evil spirits that providers attempted to scare away through rituals and dances.
b. The Egyptians were very advanced at an early time in the use of suturing and preventive measures such as public health.
c. Although major advancements were made during the Renaissance in pharmacology, chemistry, and medical knowledge, this was the dark period for nursing because those who entered the profession were most often unsavory.
d. During the Middle Ages, health care providers who were women used herbs; however, men used purging and surgeries that were performed by unskilled individuals.
DIF: Application REF: p. 3
13.A prospective nursing student who researches universities that offer a baccalaureate degree in nursing would want to ensure that the program is accredited by the:
|a.||American Nurses Association.|
|b.||Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education.|
|c.||National Institutes of Health.|
|d.||National Nursing Council.|
Correct: The Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) is the agency that exclusively accredits baccalaureate and graduate-degree nursing programs.
a. The American Nurses Association focuses on professional issues, not accreditation.
c. The National Institutes of Health support medical research.
d. The National Nursing Council was a committee of six national nursing organizations whose purpose was to expand nursing education.
DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 11
14.Nursing in the 1990s was characterized by:
|a.||men leaving nursing to enter the armed services.|
|b.||traditional 8-hour shifts to nurse burnout and compassion fatigue.|
|c.||a focus on preventable diseases.|
|d.||a decrease in nursing research.|
Correct: Health promotion and disease prevention were recognized as the means to reduce the high number of mortalities associated with preventable diseases-Healthy People 2000 was published as a nationwide effort to reduce preventable deaths.
a. Although men remained a minority in nursing, men’s entry into armed forces was not the cause for this.
b. More women entered the workforce needing to work more hours in fewer days for more money, allowing them to work a second job; 12 hour shifts became popular.
d. Nursing research moved into the National Institutes of Health, leading to interprofessional collaboration and growth.
DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 17
15.A nurse is part of the policy committee for a hospital. The committee is provided with statistics indicating that patients participating in a satisfaction survey felt they lacked sufficient information about new drugs started while hospitalized and continued after discharge. In addition, charts noted high recidivism rates. The committee recommended that a formalized patient education plan be instituted to reconcile all medications and provide patient information about new medications. The committee is using which component of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2011 message?
|a.||Nurses should achieve higher levels of education to be effective members of an interdisciplinary team.|
|b.||Nurses should have a minimum of a master’s degree to sit on policy committees that affect an entire facility.|
|c.||Pay for nurses should be consistent with that of physicians since the committee is interdisciplinary.|
|d.||Policy is based on data, which provides the groundwork for decision making.|
Correct: The IOM report initiatives include effective workforce planning and policy making based on better data collection and improved infrastructure.
a. The IOM advocates a seamless system to promote achievement of higher education.
b. Nurses’ work should fully reflect the extent of their education. However, most committees have members with varying educational levels; some include lay persons.
c. Nurses should be equal partners in planning health care, but pay is not part of the IOM recommendations.
DIF: Application REF: p. 18
16.The Affordable Care Act of 2011:
|a.||requires that by 2020 all newly licensed nurses have a bachelor’s degree at minimum.|
|b.||would provide health care benefits to millions who were previously uninsurable or unable to afford insurance.|
|c.||caps the amount that hospitals and physicians can charge for procedures.|
|d.||subsidizes private insurance companies, thereby reducing health care costs for individuals who have chronic or catastrophic illness such as cancer.|
Correct: It is anticipated that the ACA (2011) will make insurance coverage possible for millions who have previously not had insurance or had been denied insurance.
a. This act does not dictate the education level of registered nurses.
c. This act provides insurance coverage rather than controlling costs through limits for reimbursement of certain procedures.
d. The government would provide insurance coverage rather than private insurance.
DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 19
17.It has been said that “history repeats itself because no one was listening the first time.” Which statement is true when comparing the nursing care provided in the Civil War (1861 to 1865) to that provided during the Crimean War?
|a.||Epidemics such as smallpox and typhoid were the primary emphasis of nursing care in both wars.|
|b.||Soldiers were housed in substandard conditions, but due to Nightingale’s push for sanitary conditions, in the Civil War soldiers were housed in aseptic conditions.|
|c.||African-American nurses were widely accepted by society and the profession, receiving equal compensation during the Civil War due in large part to the efforts of Mary Seacole during the Crimean War.|
|d.||Both Nightingale (Crimean War) and Dix (Civil War) completed nursing training before accepting positions as nurses in the wars.|
Correct: Numerous epidemics plagued the country, including syphilis, gonorrhea, malaria, smallpox, and typhoid.
b. Soldiers in both wars were housed in deplorable conditions, often infested with rodents.
c. Although African-American nurses served during the Civil War, they received less compensation. (White nurses were paid $12 per month; African-American nurses received $10 per month.)
d. Dix was a schoolteacher and Nightingale had completed a nursing training program prior to the war.
DIF: Application REF: p. 9
1.The clinical nurse leader (CNL): (Select all that apply.)
|a.||requires certification as an advanced practice nurse.|
|b.||provides care at the bedside while collaborating with other members of the health care team.|
|c.||focuses on clinical practice rather than administration or education.|
|d.||is an advanced practice nurse whose practice is limited to the acute care setting.|
|e.||has a clinically focused doctoral degree in nursing, which provides prescriptive authority.|
ANS: B, C
b. The CNL manages care at the bedside or point of care through an interdisciplinary approach.
c. The CNL is a provider of care and does not assume the role of manager.
a. The CNL is not an advanced practice nurse but rather a generalist.
d. The CNL is a generalist and is not an advanced practice nurse.
e. The CNL is educated at the master’s level and does not have prescriptive authority.
DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 2
2.A newly licensed nurse compares the challenges facing nursing today with those faced by nurses when her mentor graduated in 1990. The mentor states, “Prevention was the focus of nursing when I graduated. We stressed preventive health measures such as smoking cessation education to reduce preventable diseases and prevention to reduce the spread of infectious disease such as AIDS.” The mentor asks, “What do you think the challenges will be for nurses graduating now? The correct response would be: (Select all that apply.)
|a.||coordinating care for a more diverse aging population who have complex health values.|
|b.||managing care provided by nurses who are technologically advanced and skilled at interprofessional collaboration.|
|c.||providing care to well-informed consumers who are younger with narrow health values.|
|d.||redesigning nursing care delivery models to streamline care based on fewer generational differences.|
|e.||focusing on care from a systems perspective.|
ANS: A, B, E
a. Our society, thus our patients/consumers, is aging and better informed about health care options, with health values as diverse as the various populations of patients served.
b. Nurses educated in the twenty-first century are introduced to advanced technologies throughout the curriculum, but a gap still exists between the potential benefits of technology and the use made of it to reduce errors and improve patient care; interprofessional collaboration is a challenge with incivility and workplace violence increasing.
e. Today’s nurses must view health care from a systems perspective rather than a nursing unit perspective to decrease errors/costs that arise from system errors.
c. Today’s consumers are much better informed about their care; however, they are aging rather than younger and have more diverse/complex health values.
d. Because nurses and patients are more culturally and generationally diverse, care models need to be designed that are patient focused and account for generational and cultural differences between patients and providers.
DIF: Comprehension REF: pp. 18-19
3.A nurse who has practiced for 1 year on a medical-surgical unit is very interested in a position in the operating room. She traces the nursing history of surgery to learn how nursing has evolved in this practice. To determine if, historically, surgery methods advanced the practice of nursing, select the correct statements. (Select all that apply.)
|a.||The Ancient Egyptians were the first to use anesthesia in the operating room.|
|b.||The “Barbers” of the Middle Ages used sterile techniques to reduce wound infections.|
|c.||The Indian culture from 274 to 236 BC had hospitals staffed with female nurses who practiced much like today’s nurses.|
|d.||During the Renaissance, advances in nursing education, including surgery, were nonexistent.|
|e.||Following World War II, nurses practiced in mobile army surgical hospitals, where medical and surgical techniques were further refined.|
ANS: D, E
d. During the Renaissance, major advancements were made in pharmacology, chemistry, and medical knowledge, including anatomy, physiology, and surgery with new emphasis given to medical education, but nursing education was practically nonexistent.
e. Following World War II, nurses volunteered for the Korean War, where care was provided in MASH units and surgical techniques were defined.
a. Ancient Egyptians were the first to use the concept of suture in repairing wounds, but they did not use anesthesia.
b. The Barbers of the Middle Ages were poorly trained and lacked any formal medical education and performed surgery and medical treatments that were considered “bloody” or “messy.” Nurses also provided some medical care; however, female nurses who were not midwives were forbidden to witness childbirth, help with gynecologic examinations, or even diaper male infants.
c. The Indian practice of surgery was very well developed, but male nurses had qualifications and duties similar to those of the twentieth-century practical nurse.
DIF: Application REF: p. 7 | p. 13
1.Which group in early civilization is credited with developing a pharmacopoeia to classify more than 700 drugs used in caring for the sick?
A pharmacopoeia that classified more than 700 drugs was written by the Egyptians to assist in the care and management of disease.
DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 6
1.Place the role of nurses in chronological order from the Civil War to World War II. Put a comma and space between each answer choice (for example: a, b, c, d).
a. Nurses who served during war were given rank as officers.
b. No nurses were formally trained.
c. Public health nursing and occupational nursing were begun.
d. The nurse anesthetist was introduced.
b, c, d, a
It was not until 1860 that Nightingale established the first nursing school in England. Nurses were not formally trained until Nightingale’s time. In the early 1900s, before World War I, Lillian Wald instituted public health nursing and occupational nursing. In 1914, with the beginning of World War I, the nurse anesthetist joined the surgical team. Nurses were seen as a valuable part of the military and attained the ranks of officers in the Army and the Navy for their participation in World War II.
DIF:ApplicationREF:p. 9 | p. 11 | p. 13
Test Bank: Contemporary Nursing, Issues, Trends, & Management 6th edition Cherry 978-0323101097