Test Bank & Instr. Manual: Psychology and Work Today 10th edition Schultz 978-0205683581

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  • Test Bank & Instr. Manual: Psychology and Work Today 10th edition Schultz 978-0205683581
  • Price: $15
  • Published: 2009
  • ISBN-10: 0205683584
  • ISBN-13: 978-0205683581

Description

Test Bank & Instr. Manual: Psychology and Work Today 10th edition Schultz 978-0205683581

CHAPTER 1

Principles, Practices, and Problems

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After reading and studying Chapter 1, students should be able to:

• Describe Industrial-Organizational (I-O) psychology, what I-O psychologists do, and where they work.

• Outline the scope and history of I-O psychology.

• Understand how I-O psychologists conduct research.

• Identify the major areas of I-O psychology.

• Explain the contemporary challenges facing I-O psychologists.

• Know what they can do with an I-O major.

• Describe the problems faced by I-O psychologists.

LECTURE OUTLINE

Why Do We Work?

Is it just about the money?

What else is there?

Personal satisfaction, fulfillment, and pride of accomplishment

Emotional security, self-esteem, and contentment

Identity and status, friendships and belonging

What is I-O Psychology?

Def. – The application of the methods, facts, and principles of psychology to people at work.

It is a SCIENCE

Deals with observable behavior

Behaviors reflect underlying psychological processes

Empirical in its approach to research

Objective in its methods and results

Topics of Interest for I-O Psychologists

Human Resources Development

Selection

Testing

Performance appraisal

Training & Development

Organizational Psychology

Leadership

Motivation, satisfaction, Involvement

Organization

Schultz & Schultz 10e 2 Chapter 1

Workplace Characteristics

Working conditions

Safety, violence & health

Stress

Engineering Psychology

Consumer Psychology

Research Methods used by I-O Psychologists

Observe the behavior of employees on the job under well-controlled and systematic conditions

Record behavioral responses

Vary the conditions and measure resulting changes

Look, listen, measure, and record according to scientific method

The Pioneers of I/O

Walter Dill Scott (1869-1955)

First to apply psychology to advertising, employee selection, & management

Wrote Theory and Practice of Advertising (1903)

Formed first consulting company in Industrial Psychology (1919)

Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916)

The Psychology of Industrial Efficiency (1913)

Goal of improving worker efficiency

Used tests to measure skills and match workers to jobs

Conducted research in the workplace

Wrongfully accused of being a German spy in WWI

Psychological Testing in WWI

WWI marked the emergence of I-O psychology as an important discipline

Testing

Army Alpha

For recruits who could read & write

Army Beta

For recruits who couldn’t read or speak English

Personal Data Sheet

To detect neurotic tendencies

Officer & pilot selection tests

Schultz & Schultz 10e 3 Chapter 1

The Hawthorne Studies

Western Electric Co. Hawthorne Works

Long-term study begun in 1924

Studied effects of work environment on employee efficiency

Findings:

Social & psychological factors in the work environment had the potential to effect organizational outcomes

as much or more than physical factors

Opened up new areas of research

Leadership, informal groups, attitudes, communications, motivation, satisfaction

Criticized for lack of scientific rigor

WWII and Engineering Psychology

More than 2000 psychologists contributed to the war effort

Focused on testing, classifying and training millions of recruits

Complex weapons sparked engineering psychology

Human abilities and limitations

Equipment design

Work-place design

Increased stature of I-O to Government and Business

Contemporary I/O

Concern with organizational issues

Human relations

Leadership

Motivation

Job satisfaction

Organizational structure and climate

Decision making

Challenges for I-O Psychology

Virtual workplace and virtual workers

Contingent or temporary workers

Worker involvement

Technological advances

Worker literacy

Globalization

Increasing demographic diversity

Generational differences in values

Schultz & Schultz 10e 4 Chapter 1

What Are Marketable Skills of I-O Psychologists?

Psychological testing, and survey construction and validation

Human resources selection and placement

Performance appraisal

Fair employment practices

Employee training

What Can You Do With a Psychology Major?

50% work for private corporations

Most are in managerial positions

The rest work in sales, human resources, training, and other staff functions

15% are employed by government agencies

14% find jobs in education12% run their own businesses

9% work for charitable organizations.

Types of Jobs for I-O Psychologists

Human Resources Consultant

Market Research

Assessment Centers

Manager of Psychological Services

Organizational Planning and Development

Training

Academics

Annual Income for I-O Psychologists

Masters Degree

Median: $79,000

All Psychologists Median: $74,000

PhD

Median: $98,500

All Psychologists Median: $55,000

Problems Faced by I-O Psychologists

Fraudulent practitioners

Credentials and certification

Communication with management

Resistance to new ideas

Research versus application?

KEY TERMS (p. 22)

Industrial-Organizational (I-O) psychology – the application of the methods, facts, and principles of the

science of behavior and mental processes at work. (p. 7)

Schultz & Schultz 10e 5 Chapter 1

Hawthorne studies – a long-term research program at the Hawthorne, Illinois, Western Electric Company plant.

It documented the influence of a variety of managerial and organizational factors on employee behavior. (p. 8)

WEBSITES

• The Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology – http://www.siop.org

• The American Psychological Association – http://www.apa.org

• The Industrial Psychologist – http://www.siop.org/tip/tip.htm

REVIEW QUESTIONS (pp. 22-23)

1. Describe some ways in which the kind of work you do affects your life off the job.

This question provides students an opportunity to address concepts and themes that relate to the course content.

2. How will the findings of I-O psychologists influence the way in which you perform your job? (pp. 5-6)

• I-O influences performance through research on a variety of processes, including:

• Recruitment

• Selection

• Training

• Ergonomics and Safety

• Job attitudes such as job satisfaction

• Absenteeism, tardiness and turnover

3. How does I-O psychology influence everyday life, even away from work? (p.3)

• Enjoyment of a job can result in:

• Personal satisfaction, fulfillment and pride of accomplishment

• Emotional security, self-esteem and contentment

• A sense of identity, status, friendships and positive social experiences

• Single most reliable predictor of a long life is job satisfaction

• Unhappiness with job can result in:

• Tedium, monotony and physical hazards

• Stress, anxiety and dissatisfaction which leads to long-term physical and emotional health issues

• Work dissatisfaction can bring discontent home that is inflicted on family and friends

4. Give examples of ways in which I-O psychology can save money for your employer. (p. 6)

• Reduce absenteeism

• Reduce turnover of personnel

• Improve communication between management and workers

• Enhance job satisfaction

• Ensure the hiring of only the best qualified applicants for a job

Schultz & Schultz 10e 6 Chapter 1

5. Explain how psychology as a science deals with aspects of behavior such as motivation, emotion, and

intelligence, which cannot be objectively observed. (p. 7)

• They observe the behavior of employees on the job under well-controlled and systematic conditions

• They record behavioral responses such as the number of parts produced each hour on an assembly line

• They vary the conditions under which a job is performed and measure any resulting differences in

performance.

6. How did World War I influence the development of I-O psychology? (p. 8)

• WWI marked the emergence of I-O psychology as an important discipline

• Intelligence Testing

• Army Alpha for recruits who could read and write

• Army Beta for recruits who couldn’t read or speak English

• Personal Data Sheet

• A personality test designed to detect neurotic tendencies in officer and pilot candidates

7. In what ways did the following individuals contribute to the development of I-O psychology? (pp. 7-10)

• Walter Dill Scott

• First to apply psychology to advertising, employee selection, and management

• Wrote Theory and Practice of Advertising (1903)

• Hugo Münsterberg

• Wrote The Psychology of Industrial Efficiency (1913)

• Goal of improving worker efficiency

• Used tests to measure skills and match workers to jobs

• Conducted research in the workplace

• Elton Mayo

• Head of Harvard’s Department of Industrial Research

• Conducted the Hawthorne studies at the Western Electric plant in Hawthorne, IL, which documented

the influence of a variety of managerial and organizational factors on employee behavior

8. Explain how the results of the Hawthorne studies opened new areas for I-O psychologists to explore. (p. 10)

• Begun in 1924, the Hawthorne studies examined effects of work environment on employee efficiency

• Found that social and psychological factors in the work environment were of potentially greater importance

than physical factors

• Opened up new areas in leadership, the formation of informal groups among works, employee attitudes,

and communication patterns

• Also identified managerial and organizational variables influencing efficiency, motivation, and satisfaction

Schultz & Schultz 10e 7 Chapter 1

9. Describe the impact of World War II on the development of I-O psychology. (p. 10)

• Brought more than 2000 psychologists directly into the war effort

• Major contribution was the testing, classifying, and training of millions of military recruits

• New skills were required to operate sophisticated aircraft, tanks, and ships, and military needed to identify

capable people

• Success in these areas helped business recognize the value of I-O to the workplace

10. What are some advantages and disadvantages of electronically connected virtual workplaces? (pp. 10-11)

• Advantages

• Work offsite and reduce costs of physical plant

• Communication through a variety of media

• Instant access to information wherever there is internet access

• Disadvantages

• Workers expected to work or be available well beyond regular work hours

• Tethered to the office – 24/7 culture

11. In what ways can the hiring of temporary workers affect a company’s full-time employees? (p. 11)

• According to Davis-Blake, Broschak, and George (2003):

• Use of contract workers resulted in a decrease in the full-time workers’ loyalty to the organization

• Full-time workers also reported that their relations with management had deteriorated

• Full-time workers expected to train temps and hold them accountable for tasks performed by temps,

increasing both workload and responsibility for full-timers

• Full-time employees believed they had more prestige and a more demanding workload than temps

(DeCuyper & DeWitte, 2006)

12. How have the trends toward virtual employees, virtual workplaces, and globalization changed the ways in

which jobs are performed? (pp. 10-13)

• The virtual workplace is one where employees operate remotely from each other and from managers;

employees often work off-site; telecommuting is frequent; workers need to be skilled in information

technology and information management; workers are often expected to work or be available beyond the

normal working hours; 37 percent of I-O psychologists point to the impact of technology and Internetrelated

developments as the most important future trend in the field.

• Workers expect more involvement and participation; managers no longer can rule by command; now they

function more as guides and leaders.

• There is a radical change in the application of technology to enhance productivity.

• Many corporations are outsourcing jobs overseas, leaving workers unemployed at home. Workers will need

to continually upgrade skills.

Schultz & Schultz 10e 8 Chapter 1

13. What challenges does the changing ethnic composition of the U.S. workforce offer for I-O psychologists?

(pp. 14-15)

• Changes in selecting and training workers

• Redesigning jobs and equipment

• Refining management practices

• Raising morale

• Dealing with health and safety issues

14. Distinguish between the four generations in today’s workforce. (pp. 14-15)

• Silent Generation (1922-1945)

• Nearing end of working careers or retired, but retain positions of power

• Tend to be hardworking, respectful of authority, and loyal to their employer and expect loyalty in

return in terms of retirement benefits

• Typically worked for only one or two employers

• Baby Boomers (1946-1964)

• Largest generation

• Had to become extremely competitive to find jobs and promotions

• Workaholics who sacrificed family for pay and promotions

• Generation X (1965-1979)

• Products of Boomer parents

• Deliberately avoiding path of parents

• More open to non-traditional work

• Sophisticated users of computer technology

• Likely to question authority and value autonomy and independence in work and private lives

• Generation Y (1980-?)

• Will constitute almost half of workforce by 2012

• The “most praised” generation

• Self-centered and require constant adulation, feedback and recognition from bosses (Zaslow, 2007)

• Entrepreneurial and want meaningful work right away

• Would rather have free time than money

• Feel little loyalty and switch jobs frequently

• Want work and co-workers to be fun

15. Describe some of the characteristics of your generation. Do you think this is a fair description of yourself?

This question will elicit a variety of perspectives, particularly if members of multiple generational groups are

represented in your class

Schultz & Schultz 10e 9 Chapter 1

16. What kinds of jobs could you obtain with a bachelor’s degree in psychology? Suppose you earned a PhD in I-O

psychology; for what kinds of jobs would you be qualified? (pp. 15-16)

• Bachelor’s degree – find professional jobs in their specialty areas at competitive salaries in industry,

government, consulting firms, and research organizations.

• Higher positions in businesses and universities typically require a PhD

• Median Salaries (2007)

• Master’s degree – $79,000 (vs. $55,00 for all Psychology Masters)

• Doctoral degree – $98,500 (vs. $74,000 for ally Psychology PhDs)

17. What unique problems do I-O psychologists face in today’s workplace? Which of these problems do you think

is the most serious? (pp. 17-19)

• Fraudulent practitioners

• Need for credentials and certification

• Communication with management (getting management to understand and listen)

• Worker resistance to new ideas

18. Describe the controversy between research and application. (pp. 19-20)

• Research is often seen as too technical and difficult to apply

• Researchers seen as interested in theory and methods, not practical application

• Research is often not oriented toward real-world problems

• Psychologists who work for organizations know that research and application are interdependent

• Organizations are often looking for a quick fix; research “takes too long”

PRACTICAL EXERCISES

1. Have students go online with the American Psychological Association (www.apa.org) and the Society for

Industrial and Organizational Psychology (www.siop.org) to find and report information relating to:

• Student membership

• Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology

• Division of Military Psychology

• Division of Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychologists

• Society for Consumer Psychology

• Job market for I-O psychologists (find three jobs each that would be of interest)

Schultz & Schultz 10e 10 Chapter 1

2. To generate discussion relating to I-O psychology (and the organization of the text), ask students to rate their

interest in the following topics. Scores can be posted on the black/white board, medians then can be plotted, and

individual differences in interests noted and discussed. This is a good way to introduce and preview the course

(and find out about student interest and motivation).

(1)

Very

Disinterested

(2)

Somewhat

Disinterested

(3)

Neutral

(4)

Somewhat

Interested

(5)

Very

Interested

Research methods – Ch. 2

Employee selection principles &

techniques – Ch. 3

Psychological testing – Ch. 4

Performance appraisal – Ch. 5

Training & development – Ch. 6

Leadership – Ch. 7

Motivation, job satisfaction, & job

involvement – Ch. 8

The organization of the

organization – Ch. 9

Working conditions – Ch. 10

Safety, violence, & health in the

workplace – Ch. 11

Stress in the workplace – Ch. 12

Engineering psychology – Ch. 13

Consumer psychology – Ch. 14

CHAPTER 1 TEST ITEMS

TRUE-FALSE

1. Work contributes to an employee’s self-esteem and emotional security. (T, p. 3)

2. If the methods and findings of I-O psychology are used improperly by management or are misunderstood by

employees, they can do more harm than good. (T. p. 5)

3. I-O psychology began in the early 19th century. (F, p. 10)

4. Hugo Münsterberg is the author of The Psychology of Industrial Efficiency (1913). (T, p. 8)

5. The Army Alpha was designed to detect neurotic tendencies in WWI recruits. (F, p. 8)

6. The Army Beta was designed for WWI recruits who could not read English. (T, p. 8)

7. WWI marked the emergence of I-O psychology as an important discipline. (T, p. 8)

8. The Hawthorne Studies found that physical factors were more important than social factors in contributing to

work performance. (F, p. 9)

9. The complex weapons used in WWII sparked the development of engineering psychology. (T, p. 10)

10. The use of temporary workers can have negative effects on the organization’s full-time employees. (T, p. 11)

11. The concept of globalization results in shifting jobs to places with lower labor costs. (T, p. 13)

Schultz & Schultz 10e 11 Chapter 1

12. Most I-O masters degree graduates find professional jobs in their specialty areas at competitive salaries.

(T, p. 15)

13. The median income for I-O psychologists with a master’s degree is lower than the median for all psychologists

with a similar degree. (F, p. 16)

14. More than half of doctoral candidates receiving a PhD in I-O psychology today are women. (T, p. 16)

15. The number of women receiving degrees in I-O psychology has decreased over the last decade. (F, p. 16)

16. SIOP takes the position that I-O psychologists should be licensed. (F, p. 19)

17. Employees always welcome the changes that are developed and implemented by I-O psychologists. (F, p. 19)

18. The fundamental issue confronting I-O psychologists working in the private sector is that research and

application are not compatible (F, p. 20)

LISTING/SHORT ANSWER

1. Why is a job more than a paycheck? (p. 4)

• Personal satisfaction, fulfillment, and pride of accomplishment

• Emotional security, self-esteem, and contentment

• Identity and status, friendships and belonging

2. What is I-O psychology? (p. 7)

The application of the methods, facts, and principles of psychology to people at work

3. How do I-O psychologists conduct research? (p. 7)

• Observe the behavior of employees on the job under well-controlled and systematic conditions

• Record behavioral responses

• Vary the conditions and measure resulting changes

• They look, listen, measure, and record objectively and precisely, adhering to the principles of the scientific

method.

4. Explain the contribution of Walter Dill Scott to I-O psychology. (p. 8)

• The first to apply psychology to advertising, employee selection, and management.

• Wrote The Theory and Practice of Advertising (1903).

• Formed first consulting company in Industrial Psychology (1919)

5. Explain the contribution of Hugo Münsterberg to I-O psychology. (p. 8)

• Wrote The Psychology of Industrial Efficiency (1913)

• Conducted workplace research with the goal of improving worker efficiency

• Used tests to measure skills and match workers to jobs

• Wrongly accused of being a German spy during WWI

6. Identify: Army Alpha, Army Beta, and Personal Data Sheet. (p. 8)

• Army Alpha – For recruits who could read and write

• Army Beta – For recruits who could not read or speak English

• Personal Data Sheet – To detect neurotic tendencies

7. What was the most significant finding of the Hawthorne Studies? (p. 9)

Social and psychological factors in the work environment were of potentially greater importance than physical

factors.

Schultz & Schultz 10e 12 Chapter 1

8. Specify some of the major Organizational issues (the O side of I-O) addressed by I-O psychology since WWII.

(p. 9)

• Human relations

• Leadership

• Motivation

• Job satisfaction

• Organizational structure and climate

• Decision making

9. List the contemporary challenges for I-O psychology. (pp. 10-15)

• Rapidly changing nature of work

• Virtual workplace and workers

• Worker involvement

• Technological advances requiring new skills combined with widespread illiteracy

• Increasing ethnic diversity in the work population

• The globalization of the workplace

• Generational differences in values

10. What are the most marketable skills of I-O psychologists? (p. 15)

• Psychological test and survey construction and validation

• Human resources selection and placement

• Performance appraisal

• Fair employment practices

• Employee training

11. Specify the problems faced by I-O psychologists. (p. 17-19)

• Fraudulent practitioners and quackery

• Requirements for credentials, licensing, and certification

• Clearly communicating ideas and recommendations to management

• Worker resistance to new ideas

• Balance between theoretical versus applied research

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. According to the Schultz and Schultz text, work ______________________.

a. provides a sense of personal identity

b. defines your social status

c. contributes to your self-esteem

d. satisfies your needs to belong to a group

e. all of the above

ANS: e (p. 3)

2. I-O psychology is best defined as __________________.

a. the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes

b. the application of principles of psychology to enhance business management

c. the application of the methods, facts, and principles of psychology to people at work

d. none of the above

ANS: c (p. 7)

Schultz & Schultz 10e 13 Chapter 1

3. The Hawthorne Studies ___________________.

a. increased the effectiveness of complex weapons during WWII

b. were conducted during the 20s and 30s

c. were a catalyst for the start of consumer psychology

d. were conducted at the Hawthorne Plant of General Motors

ANS: b (p. 8-10)

4. The Hawthorne Studies ____________________.

a. studied the effects of the physical work environment on worker efficiency

b. led to initiatives in the testing of recruits during WWI

c. found that the work environment was more important than social factors in worker performance

d. none of the above

ANS: a (p. 9)

5. I-O psychologists conduct research ______________.

a. primarily in laboratories

b. by observing the behavior of employees on the job

c. using lab rats

d. primarily in libraries

ANS: b (p. 7)

6. I-O psychologists study our behavior on the job by _______________________.

a. observing and drawing inferences from overt behavior

b. speculating about our past experiences

c. using physiological recording devices

d. recording their emotional reactions to what we do

ANS: a (p. 7)

7. The man who is credited with sparking the initial development of I-O psychology is _______________.

a. William Hawthorne

b. Walter Dill Scott

c. Hugo Münsterberg

d. John B. Watson

ANS: b (p. 7)

8. Hugo Münsterberg ____________________.

a. promoted the use of psychological tests to select employees

b. is considered to be the father of I-O psychology

c. was the first to apply psychology to advertising

d. designed the Personal Data Sheet during WWI

ANS: a (p. 8)

9. Place the following in the correct sequence to best describe the process by which I-O psychologists do their

work.

a. listen-measure-look-record

b. record-measure-look-listen

c. measure-record-listen-look

d. look-listen-measure-record

ANS: d (p. 7)

Schultz & Schultz 10e 14 Chapter 1

10. In the Hawthorne Studies, after researchers eliminated previously added benefits such as improved lighting and

rest periods, worker production ______.

a. stayed the same

b. decreased

c. increased

d. increased only for men

ANS: c (p. 9)

11. The major contribution by I-O psychologists during WWII was in the area of _______________.

a. leadership

b. motivation

c. satisfaction

d. engineering psychology

ANS: d (p. 10)

12. The “organizational” side of I-O psychology includes ________________.

a. leadership

b. employee testing

c. advertising

d. equipment design

ANS: a (p. 10)

13. To function efficiently and productively, virtual workplaces require which of the following?

a. material that can be downloaded

b. databases that can be accessed remotely

c. means of tracking employees and their work assignments

d. all the above

ANS: d (p. 11)

14. Which of the following are negative effects of using temporary workers?

a. Relations between full-time workers and management deteriorate.

b. Loyalty of full-time workers toward the organization tends to decrease.

c. Management often holds full-time workers accountable for the work of temporary workers.

d. All the above.

ANS: d (p. 11)

15. As many as ________ million Americans over the age of 17 are functionally illiterate.

a. 12

b. 17

c. 25

d. 34

ANS: c (p. 13)

16. When presented with the task of computing change due from a two-item restaurant bill, no more than

____________ of people in their 20’s could do so correctly.

a. one-fifth

b. one-third

c. one-half

d. two-thirds

ANS: b (p. 13)

Schultz & Schultz 10e 15 Chapter 1

17. In this early period of the 21st century, at least _________ of all new workers are persons of African, Asian, and

Hispanic heritage and ______ of all new employees are women.

a. one-third; one-third

b. one-half; one-third

c. one-half; one-half

d. one-third; one-half

ANS: d (p. 13)

18. In the early years of the 21st century, what proportion of all new employees are women?

a. about a third

b. less than half

c. about half

d. more than half

ANS: c (p. 13)

19. “Baby Boomers,” the largest of recent generations, were born between the years:

a. 1922-1945

b. 1946-1964

c. 1965-1979

d. 1980-2000

ANS: b (p. 14)

20. A study by Coy (2004) at Harvard University and MIT found that the jobs most likely to be exported were

__________________.

a. technological jobs

b. jobs that could be “routinized”

c. costly jobs

d. unionized jobs

ANS: b (p. 14 Newsbreak)

21. According to Zaslow (2007), members of __________________ are more self-centered and require more

constant adulation, feedback, and recognition from their bosses.

a. the Silent Generation

b. Baby Boomers

c. Gen X

d. Gen Y

ANS: d (p. 15)

22. The minimum degree requirement for an I-O psychologist is _____________.

a. an associate’s degree

b. a bachelor’s degree

c. a master’s degree

d. a Ph.D.

ANS: c (p. 15)

23. Most psychology majors with 4-year degrees find employment in _____________.

a. private corporations

b. government agencies

c. education

d. run their own businesses

ANS: a (p. 16)

Schultz & Schultz 10e 16 Chapter 1

24. In 2006, the median annual income for doctoral level I-O psychologists was ____________.

a. $45,000

b. $55,000

c. $98,500

d. $180,000

ANS: c (p. 16)

25. Psychology majors with 4-year degrees find employment in all sectors of the economy. Of those in the

corporate sector, most are in which sector?

a. managerial positions

b. sales

c. human resources

d. training

ANS: a (p. 16 Newsbreak)

26. Which of the following is not a difficulty faced by I-O psychology?

a. fraudulent practitioners

b. credentials and certification

c. communication with management

d. resistance to new ideas

e. all are difficulties faced by I-O psychology

ANS: e (pp. 17-19)

27. Many human resource managers do not read the published literature in I-O psychology. Why?

a. too technical

b. too difficult to understand

c. impractical and irrelevant

d. all of the above

ANS: d (p. 19)

28. The conflict between research and application arises because __________________.

a. organizations often need immediate answers

b. production schedules cannot wait

c. managers face time constraints

d. all of the above

ANS: d (pp. 19-20)

29. The value of the applicability of results from a laboratory study conducted by I-O psychologists depends on

_________________.

a. the use of college students as subjects

b. the similarity between the situations in which they were obtained and the present situation

c. the use of workers as subjects

d. the amount of control available to the psychologist

ANS: b (p. 20)

30. Organizational psychology is concerned with which of the following?

a. vocational training

b. advertising

c. policy and structure

d. turnover

ANS: c (p. 21)

Test Bank & Instr. Manual: Psychology and Work Today 10th edition Schultz 978-0205683581