Test Bank: Nursing in Today’s World, Trends, Issues and Management 10th Ellis 978-1605477077

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  • Test Bank: Nursing in Today’s World, Trends, Issues and Management 10th Ellis 978-1605477077
  • Price: $19
  • Published: 2011
  • ISBN-10: 1605477079
  • ISBN-13: 978-1605477077

Description

Test Bank: Nursing in Today’s World, Trends, Issues and Management 10th Ellis 978-1605477077

Chapter: Chapter 1: Exploring the Growth of Nursing as a Profession

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the practice of medicine in

Greece from 800 BC to 300 BC?

A) Greek culture stressed natural causes for disease, a patient-centered approach, and the

necessity of accurate observations and record keeping.

B) Greek culture borrowed medical practices from the countries it conquered, and physicians

were often slaves.

C) Major and minor surgery, children’s diseases, and diseases of the nervous and urinary

systems were described in Greek culture.

D) Medicine men (known first as shamans and later as priests) were responsible for curing ills

of body and mind.

Ans: A

Client Needs: B

Cognitive Level: Comprehension

Difficulty: Moderate

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 1

Page and Header: 4, Table 1.1

Feedback: Hippocrates, born about 400 BC, was a Greek citizen who became known as the

Father of Modern Medicine. He emphasized natural causes for disease, a patient-centered

approach, and the necessity of accurate observations and record keeping. These priorities

influenced the practice of medicine both in Greece and beyond. Persia was known to utilize

slaves as physicians, and Rome borrowed medical practices from the countries it conquered.

Ancient India emphasized hygiene and prevention of sickness and described major and minor

surgery, children’s diseases, and diseases of the nervous and urinary systems. Medicine men

were characteristic of the Mayan and Aztec civilizations.

2. Florence Nightingale fostered the development of nursing as a profession. What was the

basis of her nursing theory?

A) The nurse’s role is to assist individuals (sick or well) to carry out those activities that they

would perform unaided if they had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge.

B) The goal of nursing is to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon him,

primarily by altering the environment.

C) The focus of nursing is the spiritual subjective aspects of both the nurse and the patient and

the “caring moment” relating to the time when the nurse and the patient first come together.

D) The focus of nursing is the care of human beings who are viewed as open systems in

constant interaction with their environments.

Ans: B

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Analysis

Difficulty: Difficult

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 2

Page and Header: 21, Early Definitions of Nursing

Feedback: Florence Nightingale, in her Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not,

described the nurse’s role as one that would “put the patient in the best condition for nature to

act upon him” (Nightingale, 1954, p. 133), a definition that often is quoted today. This action

was prioritized over physically assisting the patient. Watson emphasized the spiritual subjective

aspects of the nurse and the patient, and the “open systems” concept is central to King’s theory

of nursing.

3. Which one of the following statements accurately describes an element of the process of

providing a definition of nursing?

A) Researchers can pinpoint the period in history when nursing first evolved.

B) Nurses agree on a single definition of nursing, partly because of the history of nursing.

C) There is an obvious distinction between nursing and medicine.

D) Nursing theorists developed definitions of nursing consistent with their conceptual

frameworks.

Ans: D

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Analysis

Difficulty: Moderate

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 7, 8

Page and Header: 23, Influences on the Definition of Nursing

Feedback: As nursing has grown into a true profession, many nursing theorists have

developed definitions of nursing consistent with their conceptual frameworks; these

frameworks provide the foundation for any given definition of nursing. The historical

emergence of nursing did not take place at one particular time, and there are multiple definitions

of nursing. While nursing and medicine indeed differ, the distinctions between the two

professions are not always clear.

4. A nurse wishes to document nursing actions using a standardized language. Which of the

following systems might the nurse use?

A) NANDA International (NANDA-I)

B) Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)

C) Minimum Data Set for Nursing Home Resident Assessment and Care Screening (MDS)

D) Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)

Ans: D

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Application

Difficulty: Moderate

Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

Objective: 12

Page and Header: 40, Nursing Interventions Classification

Feedback: Started in 1996 at the University of Iowa, the Nursing Interventions Classification

(NIC) is a comprehensive, standardized language that describes actions that nurses perform in

all settings and in all specialties and includes both physiologic and psychosocial interventions.

NANDA and NOC provide standardized language for nursing diagnoses and outcomes. The

MDS is an assessment tool specific to long-term care settings.

5. An RN who practices in a community clinic recognizes the need for a standardized

classification and documentation system. Which of the following systems of nursing care

classification and documentation would best fit the RN’s needs?

A) NANDA International (NANDA-I)

B) Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)

C) The Omaha System

D) Patient Care Data Set (PCDS)

Ans: C

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Application

Difficulty: Difficult

Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

Objective: 13

Page and Header: 41, The Omaha System

Feedback: The Omaha System is a research-based comprehensive practice documentation

standardized taxonomy designed to document client care from admission to discharge. It was

designed as a three-part, comprehensive yet brief approach to documentation and information

management for multidisciplinary healthcare professionals who practice in community settings.

NANDA and NOC provide frameworks only for nursing diagnoses and outcomes, while the

PCDS is specific to hospital settings.

6. The number and size of nursing schools in the United States grew significantly in the years

of the early 20th century. Which of the following characteristics was emphasized in these

schools?

A) A thorough knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and epidemiology

B) Critical thinking, assertiveness, and autonomy

C) An understanding of the relationship among mind, body, and spirit

D) Religious devotion and subservience to authority

Ans: D

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Comprehension

Difficulty: Easy

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 3

Page and Header: 12, Characteristics of the Early Schools

Feedback: In early nursing schools, the nurse in training was expected to yield to her superiors

and demonstrate the obedience characteristics of a good soldier with actions governed by the

dedication to duty derived from religious devotion. These expectations superseded the

importance of critical thinking, scientific knowledge, or the holistic nature of health.

7. Florence Nightingale is acknowledged as one of the individuals who contributed most

significantly to the development of nursing as a profession. What other phenomenon

contributed most to this development?

A) Labor-saving technology that freed many women from working in the home

B) The social recognition of the importance of public funding for the treatment of disease

C) Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of illness and the importance of infection

control

D) The high mortality rates that existed during times of war

Ans: D

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Comprehension

Difficulty: Moderate

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 4

Page and Header: 8, The Nightingale Influence

Feedback: The death and disease that accompanied conflicts such as the Crimean War and the

Civil War provided the impetus for much of the development of the nursing profession.

Nursing did not primarily grow out of the availability of a female workforce, public funding for

health, or increased scientific knowledge.

8. Nurses have historically had difficulty identifying a single, comprehensive definition of

nursing. What factor most accounts for this difficulty in agreeing on a definition for nursing?

A) It can be challenging to reconcile the theoretical and practical aspects of nursing.

B) Nursing exists in the psychomotor (hands-on) domain rather than in the cognitive domain.

C) Compared with medicine, nursing has a relatively short history.

D) Nurses have traditionally been reluctant to acknowledge the outcomes of their practice.

Ans: A

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Comprehension

Difficulty: Moderate

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 5

Page and Header: 21, Developing a Definition for Nursing

Feedback: A major factor that has made it difficult to define nursing is that it is taught as

encompassing both theoretic and practical aspects, but it is pursued (and continues to be

defined) primarily through practice, until recently a little-studied area. Nursing spans

psychomotor and cognitive domains, and it has a very long history. Nurses have often failed to

document and publish the results of their practice, but there is no indication that nurses tended

not to acknowledge their influence on health.

9. One of the challenges that nurses have faced in the past, and which continues to the present,

is the need to distinguish the practice of nursing from that of medicine. Which of the following

statements best conveys a defining characteristic of nursing?

A) Education within a formal, credential-granting setting

B) An emphasis on objective, rather than subjective, health assessment

C) A holistic perspective on the health of individuals

D) A recognition that health is not always attainable for all individuals

Ans: C

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Analysis

Difficulty: Moderate

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 6

Page and Header: 22, Distinguishing Nursing from Medicine

Feedback: Nursing is concerned with caring for the person from a holistic perspective in a

variety of health-related situations. Both nursing and medicine are taught in formal educational

settings, though these settings differ. Nursing does not denigrate subjective health assessment

nor does it claim that health is unattainable for some individuals.

10. Society has sometimes questioned whether nursing can be considered to be a true

profession and whether nurses can be considered to be professionals. What characteristic of

nursing is among the characteristics that social scientists use to define a profession?

A) The median annual nursing wage is greater than $45,000.

B) Nurses use the scientific method to enhance their body of knowledge.

C) Nurses can be held legally accountable for their actions.

D) Nursing has a demonstrated commitment to the well-being of the public.

Ans: B

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Analysis

Difficulty: Difficult

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 7

Page and Header: 27, Table 1.8

Feedback: Social scientists have identified seven criteria for a profession, including the use of

the scientific method to enhance knowledge. Earnings and commitment to the public are not

among the defining characteristics of a profession. Autonomy and accountability are criteria

that are used to define a profession, but legal accountability for actions is not restricted to

professionals.

11. Among the traditions that exist in nursing education is a “passing of the lamp” ceremony

that is sometimes conducted during graduation. This ceremony communicates

A) the “light” that nursing provides in communities and society.

B) an acknowledgment of the contributions made by important nurses in history.

C) the continuity of care from practicing nurses to newly graduated nurses.

D) the need to continually build the nurse’s base of knowledge.

Ans: C

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

Difficulty: Easy

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 9

Page and Header: 31, Ceremonies Associated with Nursing Programs

Feedback: Some schools use the tradition of a “passing of the lamp.” A representative of the

graduating class hands a lamp to a representative of the next graduating class, thus reinforcing

the concept of the continual caring represented in nursing. This ceremony does not primarily

emphasize the “light” of the profession, the contribution of nurses in history (though the lamp

symbolizes the lamp carried by Florence Nightingale), or the need to add to existing

knowledge.

12. A nurse who provides care on a medical unit at a community hospital is concerned about

negative portrayals of nurses in the media. Why should this nurse be concerned with the image

of nurses and nursing?

A) A negative image of nursing can dissuade potential nurses from entering the profession.

B) A negative image of nursing reduces patients’ adherence to treatment regimens.

C) A negative image of nursing interferes with professional accountability in hospital settings.

D) A negative image of nursing reduces the development of nursing knowledge.

Ans: A

Client Needs: C

Cognitive Level: Analysis

Difficulty: Moderate

Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

Objective: 10

Page and Header: 32, The Image of Nursing Today

Feedback: Negative attitudes about nursing may discourage many capable prospective nurses,

who will choose another career that offers greater appeal in stature, status, and salary. The

image of nursing is not noted to influence patient adherence to treatment or accountability. A

negative image may indirectly limit nursing knowledge through reduced funding for research,

but this phenomenon is less pronounced than the effect on potential nurses.

13. Megan, a 21-year-old junior college student, has been frustrated by her unsuccessful

attempts to gain entry to the nursing program at the local university despite her strong academic

record and work experience. Which of the following factors has most contributed to the limited

number of seats available in many nursing programs?

A) Technological developments that have decreased the projected need for nurses

B) The tendency of practicing nurses to delay retirement until after the age of 65 years

C) The high cost to educational institutions of providing nursing education

D) The negative image of nursing in the media and popular culture

Ans: C

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Comprehension

Difficulty: Moderate

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 10

Page and Header: Nursing’s Image and the Nursing Shortage

Feedback: A factor affecting the nursing supply is the limited number of spaces in nursing

programs. Because nursing education is costly, many educational institutions have not been

able to increase the size of their programs in the past decade. This trend is not attributable to

technological change, increased length of service, or the negative image of nursing.

14. Mrs. Jimenez is a 28-year-old pregnant woman who is in labor. Due to the fact that her

labor was progressing very slowly, she was started on an infusion of oxytocin, a drug used to

increase the progression of her labor. In the planning of Mrs. Jimenez’s care, the nurse has

documented a “Risk of Fluid Volume Excess” in light of this common adverse effect of

oxytocin. The nurse has demonstrated the use of what nursing classification system?

A) The Minimum Data Set (MDS)

B) Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)

C) Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)

D) NANDA International (NANDA-I)

Ans: D

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Analysis

Difficulty: Difficult

Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

Objective: 12

Page and Header: 40, NANDA International

Feedback: “Risk of Fluid Volume Excess” is an example of a nursing diagnosis, which is the

focus of NANDA-I. This does not denote an intervention or desired outcome. The MDS is an

assessment tool specific to long-term care settings.

15. During the years of the 20th century, there was exponential growth in the number and

quality of research studies that were conducted about nurses and nursing. What factor provided

the original motivation for these studies?

A) The entry of larger number of men into nursing schools and the nursing profession

B) A desire to lessen the knowledge gap between nurses and physicians

C) The low quality of nursing schools and nursing graduates

D) Allocation of federal and state funding for nursing research

Ans: C

Client Needs: A-1

Cognitive Level: Analysis

Difficulty: Moderate

Integrated Process: Nursing Process

Objective: 11

Page and Header: 35, Studies for and About Nursing

Feedback: In the early 20th century, nurses, doctors, friends, and critics of nursing became

concerned that the preparation being offered was inadequate. Before the problem could be

corrected, it was necessary to learn more about the programs and how nurses were being used

in the employment market. To accomplish this, studies about nursing and nurses were initiated.

These studies did not primarily result from increased funding opportunities, the entry of men

into the profession, or the knowledge gap between doctors and nurses.

Test Bank: Nursing in Today’s World, Trends, Issues and Management 10th Ellis 978-1605477077